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Mayor Michael O'Connor
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The Sound Emission Ordinance (02-9, Section 15-21 of the City Code) identifies: 15-21.2.(b) A person may not cause or permit noise levels emanating from construction or demolition site activities which exceed: (1) Ninety (90) dBA during daytime hours (2) The levels specified in the Allowable Noise Level Table during nighttime hours. Daytime Hours as being between the times of 7 a.m. to 10 p.m., local time.
Noise Levels from construction/demolition Cannot Exceed 90dBA. Nighttime hours are between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m., local time. Noise levels Cannot Exceed the following:
Complaints: For complaints relating to Construction/Demolition Noise Emission, the Police Department has monitoring equipment. Call Lieutenant Brian Brown at 301-600-2135.
The city maintains a list on the Licensed Contractor page.
A containment laboratory employs engineering controls for managing infectious materials in the laboratory environment where they are being handled or maintained. The purpose of containment is to reduce or eliminate the risk of exposure to laboratory workers, other persons and the outside environment to potentially hazardous agents. Other equally important principles in containment labs are Biosafety, Biosurety and proper personnel training. There are four designated levels of containment, each with increasing levels of control. Sources:
http://orf.od.nih.gov/ Glossary of definitions: http://www.frontlinefoundation.org
• BSL-2 labs are used to study microbes that can infect humans if accidentally inhaled, swallowed, or enter the skin, but don’t usually cause serious disease. All of these diseases can be cured because there is an existing vaccine or treatment. Safety measures include the use of gloves and eyewear as well as hand washing sinks and waste decontamination equipment like autoclaves (sophisticated pressure cookers).
• BSL-3 labs are used to study microbes that can be transmitted through the air and can cause serious disease or death if untreated. These diseases are treatable with existing vaccines or treatments. Researchers perform lab work in a gas-tight room within boxes that filter the air. Other safety features include clothing decontamination, sealed windows and rooms, and specialized ventilation systems with HEPA filters. Most facilities and Universities in the US with infectious disease research programs have BSL-3 labs, and many hospitals have BSL-3 areas for isolating patients with highly contagious diseases. BSL-3 labs work with pathogens such as anthrax and plague. Access to BSL-3 labs is tightly controlled.
• BSL-4 labs are used to study microbes that can cause serious illness or death and for which no vaccine or therapy is commonly available. Lab personnel are required to wear full-body sealed suits with their own air supply and to shower when exiting the facility. The labs incorporate all BSL 3 features and occupy safe, isolated zones within a larger building. Those zones are at negative atmospheric pressure to keep all air within the lab and filtered. BSL-4 labs work with pathogens such as ebola and other hemorrhagic fevers. Access to BSL-4 labs is tightly controlled, physically and procedurally.
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/PublicMedia/pages/faqs.aspx www.selectagents.gov www.cdc.gov www.usda.gov http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/index.htm http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/published_volumes/biological_warfare/BW-ch22.pdf http://www.nems.nih.gov/Pages/default.aspx
In Frederick County, Biosafety level 3 and 4 (BSL-3 and BSL-4) labs are located within the perimeter of Fort Detrick. Two private BSL-3 labs are located outside of Fort Detrick. There are no BSL-4 laboratories operating in Frederick County outside of the perimeter of Fort Detrick. Inside Fort Detrick are laboratory facilities operated by: •Army (US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, or USAMRIID), •Dept. of Homeland Security (National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, or NBACC), •National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Disease or NIAID (Integrated Research Facility, or IRF), and •US Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit) As of December 2011, the existing USAMRIID lab, the USDA labs and portions of the Homeland Security labs are in operation. The portion of the Homeland security laboratory that is operational was certified by Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), as of September 2011. The remaining portion is anticipated to be certified and become operational in late 2012. The NIAID facility is under construction, and is expected to be certified and become operational in 2012-13. Another Army laboratory, the Medical Countermeasures Medical Countermeasures Test & Evaluation (MCT&E) facility is still in the planning stages. A new USAMRIID facility is under construction, with estimated completion reported for 2015. Outside of Fort Detrick, there are two privately-operated containment (biosafety level 3, or ‘BSL-3’) labs in Frederick County. The State of Maryland holds information on the locations and operators of these labs. Maryland law defines who this information can be shared with and that includes emergency planners and responders but not the general public. The State of Maryland requires any individual with access to the most dangerous microbes to be registered with the Maryland Biological Agent Registry program. Sources: www.cdc.gov
Annotated Code of Maryland, Title 10 Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Subtitle 10 Laboratories, Chapter 11, Biological Agents Registry Program.
The NIBC is a campus of research facilities located on the premises of Fort Detrick, including biological labs run by the Army, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Agriculture, and Department of Homeland Security. Each of the labs comprising the NIBC are operated and maintained independently. The US Army Garrison at Fort Detrick is responsible for operation and maintenance of infrastructure for the NIBC, including power, water, sewer, post security, waste disposal, and emergency response. Source: www.detrick.army.mil/nibc
The labs have reported that the types of microbes/pathogens and toxins being worked on at any one time changes based on what research is active. They have also reported that there are no programs designed for large scale production; only a small number of microbes/pathogens are needed to conduct the research conducted at these labs.
Source:Presentation by USAMRIID to the Containment Lab Community Advisory Committee, 2012
The US Government now tightly controls who has access to Select Agents via each laboratory’s Personnel Reliability Program and the National Select Agent Registry.
The Federal Government empowered the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to ensure compliance with internationally-recognized standard practices for biological safety & security; for safety & security practices surrounding Select Agents, it is a Federal crime to deviate from these standards punishable by fines and jail time.
Since 1969 when President Nixon officially ended the Biowarfare Research & Development Program, it is illegal to conduct offensive biowarfare DEVELOPMENT research. American scientists such as those working at Fort Detrick are authorized to conduct research with biowarfare pathogens only for defensive purposes. Each of the labs reports that their research is defensive and/or focused on development of new vaccines, antibiotics, antivirals, and other therapeutics and diagnostic tests. Each of the labs reports developing modeling systems such as aerosolizing small amounts of pathogens in sealed biosafety cabinets in order to test the efficacy of countermeasures and treatments. However, "weaponized" agents may be present in some research laboratories at Fort Detrick. The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) at Fort Detrick may receive evidence from a bio-crime or terrorist attack including ‘weaponized’ microbes /pathogens, and conduct diagnostic tests to detect the microbes, or in the pursuit of medicines and vaccines. The Army lab (US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease, or USAMRIID), reports that none of the research they do is classified at this time. The Homeland Security Lab (NBACC) reports that 10 to 15% of its research is classified, as of December 2011. Two private Biosafety level 3 research laboratories in Frederick County are involved in research and development of pharmaceutical drugs (vaccines and treatments) work on non-classified research with select agents (see “What is a select agent?”). Information about these laboratories is not open to the public for security reasons, as specified in the Maryland Biological Agent Registry regulations. Private BSL-3 laboratories may be protected by various laws around trade secrets and patent laws but are still subject to Federal and State regulations regarding safe handling of infectious diseases, registration of workers with access to dangerous microbes, and inspection of their facilities by Federal agencies (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, or CDC, and the US Department of Agriculture, or USDA). Source: Textbook of Military Medicine: Part 1, Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, USA. Zajtchuk R, Bellamy RF, (Eds.) 1997.
Textbook of Military Medicine: Part 1, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, USA. Lenhart M, Lounsbury DE, Martin JW (Eds.) 2007.
For a summary of the history of biowarfare and bioterrorism, a good online resource includes the Arizona Department of Health Services’ Bureau of Emergency Preparedness and Response at the link below:
Maryland Biological Agent Registry regulations: http://dhmh.maryland.gov/labs/html/emergency_prep.html
At Fort Detrick, the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) has as a core mission element research to “develop medical solutions – vaccines, drugs, diagnostics, and information – to protect our military service members from biological threats.” Also at Fort Detrick, the Department of Homeland Security’s National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) has been established to be “a national resource to understand the scientific basis of the risks posed by biological threats and to attribute their use in bioterrorism or biocrime events." The President and Congress charged NBACC with “research and development of technologies to protect the American public from bioterrorism.” Also at Fort Detrick, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, part of the National Institutes of Health) has the Integrated Research Facility (IRF) including BSL-2, -3, and -4 labs. The mission of the NIAID IRF is "to manage, coordinate, and facilitate the conduct of emerging infectious disease and biodefense research to develop vaccines, countermeasures, and improved medical outcomes for patients." The NIAID IRF was created "to carry out biodefense research needed to understand the clinical disease processes which correlate with the severity of microbial-induced disease." Also at Fort Detrick, the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) maintains a research greenhouse operated at BSL-3 in order to conduct important research on microbes that can kill crops. Without the ability to test possible treatments safely, and to examine the processes that cause plant disease, no treatments will become available. These laboratories are all located at Fort Detrick in order for their researchers to work closely together with the other experts in biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Sources: https://www.usamriid.army.mil http://www.bnbi.org http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/PublicMedia/pages/faqs.aspx http://www.nems.nih.gov/Pages/default.aspx https://www.ars.usda.gov
Textbook of Military Medicine: Part 1, Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, USA. Zajtchuk R, Bellamy RF, (Eds.) 1997.
Labs at Fort Detrick are operated by the US Government through its departments or contractors. The National Institutes of Health operates the Integrated Research Facility (IRF), while the Army operates the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). T The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) is managed and operated for the Department of Homeland Security as a Federally-Funded Research and Development Center by the Battelle National Biodefense Instittue, LLC. Each of the labs employs contract employees from a variety of sources including Batelle Memorial Institute, SAIC, and others. Source: www.saic.com http://www.bnbi.org
The biodefense laboratories located at Fort Detrick in Frederick are collectively called the National Interagency Biodefense Campus (NIBC). These include the Integrated Research Facility (IRF, the National Institutes of Health lab), the US Department of Agriculture research lab, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), and the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC). Two privately-owned Bio-safety level 3 laboratories also operate in Frederick County and are registered with the State of Maryland. Source: http://www.usamriid.army.mil http://www.bnbi.org http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/PublicMedia/pages/faqs.aspx http://nems.nih.gov/home/frederick.cfmhttps://www.ars.usda.gov
The first US biowarfare research facility was started in April 1943 at Camp Detrick. Later, in 1956, the US Army Medical Unit (USAMU) was created at the site to develop the means to diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases caused by biological warfare agents. In 1969, USAMU was re-named USAMRIID and remains on site at Fort Detrick. Other research facilities were developed at Fort Detrick to capitalize on the facilities, expertise, and knowledge developed there through USAMRIID. The security of the site, and the ability for experts to collaborate easily in a secure and safe area, are reported as some of the reasons for the labs to be located in close proximity. Source: http://www.usamriid.army.mil http://www.bnbi.org http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/PublicMedia/pages/faqs.aspx http://nems.nih.gov/home/frederick.cfm https://www.ars.usda.gov
Department of Health Services’ Bureau of Emergency Preparedness and Response at the link below: http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/edc/edrp/es/bthistor2.htm
Microbes (e.g., viruses, bacteria, fungi) could potentially escape from a lab in a variety of ways. These include: •Fomites: Inanimate objects capable of carrying microbes in a way that allows them to continue to be infectious – these can include clothing, stethoscopes, doorknobs, writing instruments, table tops, etc. Lab workers wear surgical scrubs and special suits that are decontaminated after use, and nothing leaves a containment lab without it being autoclaved or treated with microbicidal chemicals. •Through the air: Microbes can survive the harsh environment outside a warm, moist body for a little while in the droplets formed when we cough or sneeze, and a few, like anthrax, can form tough outer coatings to form ‘spores’ that can survive outside the host for years. Air filters in labs and ultraviolet lights eliminate microbes before they escape. Containment labs are maintained at negative pressure so that air only flows inward through HEPA filters, thus preventing any lab air from ever escaping into another area. •Insects: Mosquitos are common carriers [‘vectors’] of parasites like malaria, while fleas can pick up plague bacteria from infected rodents and transmit them to humans. Ticks transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease between deer and human. Containment labs are maintained at negative pressure so that air only flows inward through HEPA filters – this also prevents a flying insect like a mosquito or fly from exiting a room. Doors of containment labs also have seals. •Water/food: Foodborne illness can be caused by poor manufacturing processes, poor food preparation practices, drinking from river or lake water contaminated by untreated waste, and even swimming pools and water parks. Containment labs do have sinks where water runs into pipes into huge steel tanks where the liquids mingle with powerful chemicals and are also ‘pressure cooked’ for hours before being allowed to exit the facility. •By infecting a lab worker: Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) can occur if a lab worker accidentally infects himself. Because lab workers are so well protected by multiple gloves and respiratory protection and special suits, the vast majority of these LAIs occur from accidental needle stick injuries. Any lab worker who accidentally pokes himself or herself is not immediately infectious: it takes time for any microbe to replicate inside the body and cause disease, so there is time for the worker to leave the lab and begin the appropriate treatment. If the situation warrants, the worker may be quarantined during treatment. Sometimes an infected worker has not been aware of the exposure and returns to the community. Lab workers are trained to immediately report any suspicious illness. •By malevolent intent: A worker intent on removing a pathogen from the laboratory could possibly do so, as the FBI reports occurred in 2001 during the Anthrax letter attacks. In order to address this concern a complex system of personnel reliability, security, and training has been put in place, along with regulations and security cameras, designed to prevent such an occurrence. Each of the containment labs in Frederick County operate under mandated biological safety & security regimes defined by a variety of internationally-accepted standards. These standards have been designed to prevent spread of microbes including the accidental or intentional release from a containment lab. The standards are laid out in detail in a publication called “Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories” (see reference). These practices are in agreement with the World Health Organization’s “Laboratory Biosafety Manual” (see reference). Federally-appointed responsibility for enforcing and monitoring lab compliance with these regulations is given to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). For labs using the most dangerous microbes, additional security measures are mandated by the Federal and State governments. Laboratory practices are scrutinized and any person with access to the microbes is required to be actively cleared in a Personnel Reliability Program, and register with the State of Maryland. These measures are taken to ensure that the individuals with access are trustworthy. All of Fort Detrick’s National Interagency Biodefense Campus (NIBC) labs have "biosurety" programs in place that focus on four main areas: 1)safety – biosafety involves enforcing proper procedures for handling dangerous pathogens; 2)security – biosecurity includes physical systems like locks and alarms, guards, and procedures to prevent theft or unauthorized activities; 3)inventory and access – microbes are inventoried and access is controlled; and 4) Personnel reliability – starting in the middle of the last decade, people with access to dangerous microbes must undergo extensive background checks and psychological evaluations, as well as frequent monitoring, to ensure they meet very high standards for reliability and trustworthiness. The Federal Government mandates this for the most dangerous organisms (all BSL-4 microbes and many BSL-3 microbes) as part of a Personnel Reliability Program. The privately-owned laboratories are subject to the same Federal laws regulating access and handling to the most dangerous organisms. The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) have jurisdiction and conduct inspections and, if necessary, can institute a cessation of operations if the situation warrants such action. In addition, the State of Maryland maintains a Registry of all individuals who are authorized to work with the most dangerous microbes. This list of individuals is not available to the public in order to protect the individuals. Sources: Annotated Code of Maryland, Title 10 Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Subtitle 10 Laboratories, Chapter 11, Biological Agents Registry Program. http://dhmh.maryland.gov/labs/html/emergency_prep.html
Safety and informational presentations by Army to CLCAC: http://www.cityoffrederick.com/DocumentView.aspx?DID=1090 http://www.cityoffrederick.com/DocumentView.aspx?DID=1088
All of the laboratories are subject to certification and inspection from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), in addition to biological safety & security (BS&S) oversight from within their operating organizations. Laboratories themselves are subject to direct oversight from the State of Maryland if they handle the most dangerous microbes; in that case, they are subject to Maryland’s Biological Agents Registry Program, and also to the Federally-mandated Select Agent Registry. Ancillary operations, such as incinerator operation and sewer water sanitization, are subject to oversight by Maryland Department of the Environment. Sources: www.cdc.gov www.usda.gov Annotated Code of Maryland, Title 10 Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Subtitle 10 Laboratories, Chapter 11, Biological Agents Registry Program.
All labs working with the most dangerous microbes are regulated by the CDC Select Agent Program, which regulates the possession, use and transfer of biological agents and toxins that pose serious public health threat. The Program promotes lab safety and security by:
1) Developing, implementing, and enforcing select agent regulations2) Providing guidance to the regulated community, and3) Inspecting facilities working with select agents.
The Program works with the USDA and the Department of Justice. The CDC and the USDA maintain the National Select Agent Registry which details regulations, guidance documents, FAQs, links, and other information.
The presentations during this forum on October 10, 2017 served to support the purpose of the CLCAC By-laws/mission (see http://www.cityoffrederick.com/DocumentCenter/View/5396). In accordance with our By-Laws published October 13, 2015, “The Containment Laboratory Community Advisory Committee (“Committee”) serves to foster and facilitate two-way communication between the Frederick County community and the operators of the high and maximum containment laboratories (Biosafety Level 3 and 4) operating at Fort Detrick and elsewhere in Frederick County. The Committee shall seek information about issues of public concern and ways to address those concerns, including the implications of laboratory operations on the safety and health of the community. The Committee shall advise and make recommendations on behalf of the public regarding opportunities to improve any laboratory-related matters that could impact public safety and health.”
At this forum, Frederick’s Emergency Management, First Responder and Public Health officials talked about what happens in case of an emergency involving pathogens from the laboratories located at Fort Detrick or private labs in the county. Each laboratory facility at Fort Detrick has an Emergency Response Plan that is shared with Frederick County Emergency Management officials. At this October 10, 2017 CLCAC meeting, Emergency Response Plans were addressed and discussed by the CLCAC and Emergency Response personnel. A video transcript of these discussions can be viewed at http://cityoffrederick.granicus.com/MediaPlayer.php?view_id=12&clip_id=3430.
The CLCAC, emergency responders and Health Officials presented the facts regarding Fort Detrick potential risks and how these potential risks would be managed. These policies and procedures are robust, and serve to mitigate any potential risks to the Frederick community by the Fort Detrick laboratories.
At Department of Defense facilities, a biological mishap is defined as an event in which the failure of laboratory facilities, equipment, or procedures appropriate to the level of potential pathogenicity of an infectious agent or toxin may allow the unintentional, potential exposure of humans or the laboratory environment to that agent. All mishaps involving biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) will be reported to CDC or APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the USDA and will be reported concurrently to the first general officer (or equivalent) in the mishap reporting chain. If the facility is a tenant on an installation, the mishap will also be reported to the garrison commander. The first general officer (or equivalent) receiving the report will forward it up the chain of command to the Office of the Director of Army Safety (ODASAF). Upon discovery of a non-BSAT occupational exposure or release of a non-BSAT outside of the laboratory, an individual or entity must immediately notify the first general officer (or equivalent) in the mishap reporting chain (DA PAM 395-69). There is no information or policy regarding release of any of the mishap information to the community.
The risk of any potential release of biological material(s) to the community is low to negligible. There is an extreme amount of redundancy of safety equipment at these facilities that would preclude any potential release of material(s). For instance, the reference Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories [BMBL] (which is an advisory document recommending best practices for the safe conduct of work in biomedical and clinical laboratories from a biosafety perspective, and is not intended as a regulatory document) states that all procedures involving the manipulation of infectious materials must be conducted within a biological safety cabinet or other physical containment devices. Thus, a barrier is placed at the immediate level of a hazard. In addition, a ducted air ventilation system is required. This system must provide sustained directional airflow by drawing air into the laboratory from “clean” areas toward “potentially contaminated” areas. The laboratory shall be designed such that under failure conditions the airflow will not be reversed. The BMBL can be accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/bmbl.pdf.
For biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories (appropriate for agents with a known potential for aerosol transmission, for agents that may cause serious and potentially lethal infections and that are indigenous or exotic in origin), a ducted air ventilation system is required. This system must provide sustained directional airflow by drawing air into the laboratory from “clean” areas toward “potentially contaminated” areas. The laboratory shall be designed such that under failure conditions the airflow will not be reversed (redundancy). The laboratory exhaust air must not re-circulate to any other area of the building and the laboratory building exhaust air should be dispersed away from occupied areas and from building air intake locations or the exhaust air must be filtered through a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. A HEPA filter is defined by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) standard adopted by most American industries to remove at least 99.97% of airborne particles 0.3 micrometers (µm) in diameter.
To the best of our knowledge, all air exhausted from biosafety level 3 laboratories at Fort Detrick is HEPA-filtered. Notably this level of engineering exceeds the recommendations of the BMBL publication for BSL-3 laboratories.
For biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories (appropriate for dangerous and exotic agents that pose a high individual risk of aerosol-transmitted laboratory infections and life-threatening disease that is frequently fatal, for which there are no vaccines or treatments, or a related agent with unknown risk of transmission). There are two models for BSL-4 laboratories: (1) A cabinet laboratory - manipulation of agents must be performed in a Class III BSC (the Class III cabinet must have a HEPA filter on the supply air intake and two HEPA filters in series on the exhaust outlet of the unit); and (2) a suit laboratory - personnel must wear a positive pressure supplied air protective suit (the suit is supplied with HEPA-filtered breathing air). In addition to the criteria listed for BSL-3 laboratories, all exhaust air from both the suit laboratory and cabinet laboratory, decontamination shower and fumigation or decontamination chambers must pass through two HEPA filters in series before discharge to the outside environment.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) defines a maximum credible event (MCE) as a hypothesized worst-case accidental explosion, fire, or agent release that is likely to occur from a given quantity and disposition of explosives, chemical agents, or reactive material. One example of an MCE at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) follows:
“The first MCE scenario for a BSL-3 laboratory accident occurs during the processing of 1 liter (0.26 gallons) of slurry containing Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, to prepare an experimental vaccine. The infective dose for this species of bacteria ranges from 1 to 10 organisms. During this process, a centrifuge rotor holding six 250-milliliter (8.45-fluid ounce) polypropylene centrifuge tubes is fitted with O-rings; each tube contains 165 milliliters (5.58 fluid ounces) of slurry. The 990 milliliters (33.46 fluid ounces) of slurry contain a total of 9.9 x 1012 (9.9 trillion) human infective doses (HID50) of the organism. One HID50 is the dose that infects 50% of exposed humans. In this scenario, a laboratory worker fails to use rubber O-rings to seal the centrifuge tubes and fails to properly tighten the safety centrifuge caps designed to prevent leakage into the centrifuge compartment that houses the rotor. All six tubes spill slurry into the rotor cups, and some of this slurry leaks into the rotor compartment, which is not sealed against the release of organisms in a small-particle aerosol. It is assumed that 10% of the slurry spills, of which 1% leaks into the rotor compartment, where 0.1% of the leakage is aerosolized. It is further assumed that 90% of the aerosol settles as liquid droplets inside the chamber. Thus, 10% (spilled from tubes) x 1% (leaked from rotor cups) x 0.1% (aerosolized) x 10% (did not settle out) = 0.00001% of the original slurry placed in the centrifuge tubes for processing would be released into the room. The most serious consequence of this laboratory accident would be the release of enough concentrated aerosol to override the air filter system, allowing the subsequent release of a significant number of infectious doses into the surrounding community. Following the assumptions above, 9.9 x 105 HID50 are presented to the filter. Further assuming that the air filter system is 95% efficient, approximately 5 x 104 HID50 (5% not removed x 9.9 x 105 HID50) would be released to the atmosphere from the exhaust stack. Using a simple Gaussian plume dispersion model in HPAC [Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) modeling system developed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency] with weather condition parameters of USAMRIID for each calendar month, the worst-case total exposure of a person breathing ground-level air would be less than 1 HID50 of Coxiella burnetii at a distance less than 2 meters (6.56 feet) from the stack. This concentration of organisms would pose no risk to human health.”
Additional scenarios of a maximum credible event are contained within the document Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement - Chemical Biological Defense Program, March 2006, Appendix C, Hazard Analyses, and can be viewed at
Army Regulation (AR) 385-10, The Army Safety Program, Chapter 20, Infectious Agents and Toxins (see http://www.wsmr.army.mil/gar/dir/Safety/Documents/References/r385-10.pdf) establishes Department of the Army safety policies and procedures for the use, handling, transportation, transfer, storage, and disposal of infectious agents and toxins (IAT) rated at BSL-2 and above used in microbiological activities in permanent or temporary clinical laboratories, biomedical and biological research settings, microbiology teaching laboratories, and veterinary reference laboratories. These policies and procedures apply to all U.S. Army activities and facilities in which IAT are used, produced, stored, handled, transported, transferred, or disposed.
Chapter 19 of AR 385-10 describes Emergency Planning and Response. The facility emergency response plan will be reviewed at least annually and, as necessary, be amended to keep current with new or changing facility conditions or information. Senior commanders and local, regional, State, and Federal emergency support and coordinating agencies (for example, law enforcement, fire departments, and health departments) will be informed of CBRN defense activities at Government-owned facilities. Agreements will be made with these agencies to identify and ensure the availability of support, including equipment and training, necessary to provide effective emergency response and to ensure compliance with applicable statutes and regulations and the facility emergency response plan. Agreements must be in writing and agreements will be reviewed annually or upon a change in operations that could affect existing emergency response plans and updated as necessary. The emergency response plan will be compatible and integrated with the disaster, fire, and/or emergency response plans of the installation and local, state, and Federal agencies. An employee alarm system will be installed according to 29 CFR 1910.165 (see https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=9819) to notify employees of any necessary emergency action. Emergency response plans will be exercised prior to adoption and at least annually thereafter to ensure the adequacy of response plans and responder training, responder familiarity with response procedures and equipment, the adequacy of support agreements, and the availability and adequacy of emergency equipment and medical support. Emergency response drills and exercises for biological operations will be conducted according to Department of the Army Pamphlet (DA PAM) 385–69 (see http://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/p385_69.pdf).
DA PAM 385–69, Safety Standards for Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, Chapter 11, Emergency Planning and Response, states that all IAT biological laboratories will establish specific emergency plans for their facilities. Plans will include liaison through proper channels with local emergency groups and with community officials. These plans will include both the building and the individual laboratories.
Therefore, based on these documents, there is in-place a comprehensive Fort Detrick-Frederick County notification protocol if an incident results in release of an IAT into the Frederick community
To the best of our knowledge, there is no permanent real-time meteorological monitoring station on the Fort Detrick campus which would serve to detect an event that would warrant evacuation of any surrounding areas. Realistically, it is assumed that the decision not to monitor is not only risk-based, but also considering the fact of extensive redundancy in facility infrastructure (filtration of BSL-3 laboratory exhaust air) and research operation policies and procedures. As stated in the BMBL and practiced, all procedures involving the manipulation of infectious or toxin-containing materials must be conducted within a biological safety cabinet or other physical containment devices.
There is a profound distinction between biological material(s) and nuclear material(s). The former are replicating entities (with the exception of toxins) and when introduced into susceptible hosts usually reveal their variable effects after 24 hours. Realistically, evidence of exposure is usually seen in days or weeks (this period is known as the incubation period). For certain pathogens and toxins, real-time detection and identification is not immediate - the minimum time may be 30 minutes. On the contrary, nuclear material(s) is non-replicating and may reveal their effects in a susceptible host immediately upon exposure of the host to the nuclear material. There are methodologies available to detect nuclear material(s) in real-time, unlike for biological material(s).
Grass and weeds must be maintained at 10 inches or less.
A person may have up to four (4) yard sales per calendar year each lasting a maximum of 3 consecutive days. A permit is required for any additional yard sales.
Yes, you may store 1 unlicensed vehicle on your property provided it is covered with a fitted car cover (not a tarp) and is in good condition.
No, city code strictly prohibits any signs from being posted on utility poles.
Property owners must remove snow and ice from all sidewalks abutting their property within 12 hours after snow has ceased falling.
It is the property owner’s responsibility. Trees and shrubs must be trimmed so that limbs shall not be closer than nine (9) feet above the sidewalk and fifteen (15) feet above any street or alley.
Home occupations are permitted as a conditional use in all R, D, NC, and GC zoning districts provided all use requirements are met. For more information contact Planning at 301-600-1499.
Building permits are required for construction or erection of a structure; construction of an addition to a structure; altering, modifying, or improving a structure; demolishing, moving, or removing a structure; or making a change of use and occupancy classification. If you are unsure if a permit is required, please contact the Building/Permit Department at 301-600-3808.
A person may not park a motor vehicle on grass, mulch, or any other surface that is not a paved area.
No, basketball hoops are prohibited from being placed in the public right of way.
Yes, every owner or operator of any building who rents or leases one or more dwelling units must supply heat to the occupants of those units from Oct 1st to May 1st.
Maryland Landlord tenant law prohibits retaliation by a landlord against a tenant. For more information, contact the Frederick County District Court at 301-600-2000.
Maximum occupancy is determined by assessing the square footage of sleeping areas, minimum room sizes, and occupancy loads.
Applications can besubmitted online, sent by email, mail or hand delivered to City Hall.
Funds areavailable after July 1, 2018 and will be distributed after a letter ofagreement between the City and the organization is completed.
Yes, it isrecommended a separate application be submitted for each specific type.
Yes, the Citymay award partial amounts.
Yes, thescorecard will be available for review.
A Grading/Public Improvements Permit is required in either of the following cases:
If your home was purchased after approximately 1980, check your settlement package for a house location survey or contact your mortgage company to obtain a copy. The Land Records at the Frederick County Courthouse contains all deeds, homeowner's association covenants and property plats. Contact the Frederick County Land Records at 301-600-1957.
Contact the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Department for maps.
RESIDENTIAL ALARM S (increment by $25 for each false alarm beginning with the third false alarm)Number of False Alarms Fine Imposed1 02 03 $254 $505 $756 $1007 $1258 $1509 $17510 $200
Flood hazard areas identified on the Flood Insurance Rate Map are identified as a Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). SFHA are defined as the area that will be inundated by the flood event having a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. Structures located in SFHAs have a 26 percent chance of suffering flood damage over the normal 30-year life of a loan, according to FEMA.
A Non-Special Flood Hazard Area (NSFHA) is an area that is in a moderate-to-low risk flood zone (Zones B, C, X Pre- and Post-FIRM). An NSFHA is not in any immediate danger from flooding caused by overflowing rivers or hard rains.
Permitting for (fences, sheds, decks) in the floodplain is the same review fee as structures located outside of the floodplain. There isn’t an additional fee for building permitted floodplain structures.
Yes. Local City permits may only require a building permit, while adding fill or development in the floodplain would need State waterways permitting and possibly FEMA’s approvals.
No. The National Flood Insurance Program (FEMA) provides owners a means to insure themselves. https://www.fema.gov/flood-insurance
The City does not issue floodplain insurance. Go to FEMA’s national flood insurance program website https://www.floodsmart.gov for more information and viewing interactive guide.
Go to the City’s website. https://www.cityoffrederickmd.gov On the home page is a link to the SpiresGIS (Maps and Apps). Open the application to the General Map. Search for your address and turn on the floodplain layer. You may also discuss your question with the Floodplain Administrator. Contact Richard Albee by email at or 301-600-3828.
Know your flood hazard. Check the maps. Use sandbags to prevent flooding in low areas. A couple of helpful property protection FEMA documents are on the City’s Floodplain webpage.
The new FPO does not require you to take any action. However, if you propose to improve/ alter/ or expand your existing home, please be aware of the requirements in the new FPO related to “substantial improvement”.
No action is required. Should you choose to alter your property or structure, the floodplain ordinance would become effective due to your chosen actions. Your mortgage provider may require you to obtain flood insurance, since all Federally backed mortgages for properties in the floodplain are required to have flood insurance.
Impervious Area is any type of surface that does not allow for the passage of stormwater into the ground. Examples include paving, concrete and rooftops.
There are provisions within the Stormwater Utility Fee Ordinance that allow for adjustments based upon certain conditions. See Ordinance Section 28-33.
No, property owners must submit a complete Stormwater Management Utility Fee Credit Application to the City Engineering Department for approval in order to receive fee credits.
No, fee credits will be applied to the SWM Utility Fee at the time a Stormwater Management Utility Fee Credit Application is approved by the City Engineering Department.
Typically, the recorded plat of your property will show easements and right of ways along with the owners of said easements or right of ways. You can find recorded plats online at Plats.net Land development staff can help determine location of easements and right of ways.
Typically, if the easement is public the city asks that the improvement remains outside of the easement, the easement document will describe what type of improvements if any are allowed to encroach. Each project is different and can be determined on a case by case basis.
This is a common issue especially downtown where the right of ways were set after historic structures were built. Certain improvements are allowed to encroach the right of way and can require a property owner to sign a right of way encroachment agreement. This agreement clarifies that privately owned improvements encroach onto City owned land and the City is not responsible for the maintenance, damages, injuries, replacement, etc.
No, the City cannot provide surveys of private property.
No, the property owner is responsible for creating or hiring someone to create their plans.
No, the City cannot provide recommendations for hiring of any consultant services.
The Frederick County Public Defender’s Office is located at 100 W. Patrick St., Frederick, MD 21701 – 301-600-1988.
The Frederick County State’s Attorney’s Office is located at 100 W. Patrick St., Frederick, MD 21701 – 301-600-1523. Frederick County State's Attorney
Otherwise, please contact the Consumer Protection Division of the Maryland Attorney General’s Office. The nearest office is located at 44 North Potomac St., Ste. 104, Hagerstown, MD 21740 – 301-791-4780. This office can be reached locally every 2nd and 4th Thursday at 301-600-1071 from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Consumer Protection Division
There are five parking garages and one municipal parking lot in the City of Frederick. To view locations please visit Maps.
The parking garage locations are:
The municipal parking lot locations are:
Handicap parking in he Downtown Business District:
Pursuant to Maryland Motor Vehicle law #13-616, If a vehicle has valid handicap tags or hangtag the vehicle may park on a regular parking meter for twice the time of the meter. Example: a two-hour meter would be 4 hours of parking at no charge with a valid H/C tag or hangtag.
The red Loading Zone meters are for commercial loading and unloading for the hours of 6AM-10AM. After 10AM they become regular parking meters and a person with a valid H/C tag or hangtag my park on them for twice the length of the meter.
No handicap parking is allowed in the long-term loading zone spaces.
All the City of Frederick parking garages are handicap accessible and have H/C spaces on each level. All patrons who park in the garages pay the prevailing rates.
Eligible Dwelling Units: Persons eligible for residential parking permits (metered or non-metered) must live on one of the following streets within the bounded area--
East and West Church Street
East Church Street (326-342 only)
East and West Second Street
East and West Third Street
Court Street between West All Saints Street to Third Street
Market Space Lot
500 Block of Elm Street
Water Street between East Patrick and Carroll Creek
East and West All Saints Street
1st block of South Market Street to 300 block of North Market Street
East and West Patrick Street
100 block of East Patrick Street to 1st block of West Patrick Street
Northside of West Second Street from Memorial Parkway west to College Avenue
300 Block of North Bentz Street
22 South Bentz Street to 46 South Bentz Street, even side only
Chapel Alley between 3rd and 4th Streets
The Southside of Carroll Parkway between Bentz Street and College Avenue
The Eastside of College Avenue between Carroll Parkway and West Patrick Street
200 block of South Carroll Street, east side only
Residential Metered Parking Permit: Each dwelling unit within the bounded area that is located on a street block with parking meters in front of the dwelling may apply for and obtain up to two (2) Residential Metered Parking Permits. The first Residential Metered Parking Permit is provided at a charge of Fifty ($50) dollars and the second Residential Metered Parking Permit is available at a cost of One Hundred Dollars ($100.00). The holder of a Residential Metered Parking Permit may park on any of the streets listed. Residents living on streets with parking meters in front of their dwelling may obtain non-metered parking permits in lieu of metered parking permits. In either case, each dwelling is restricted to a total of two (2) permits. Credit cards are accepted for payment of residential permits. Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit: 1. Each dwelling unit within the bounded area that is located on a street block where no parking meters are present in front of the dwellings may apply for and obtain up to two (2) Residential Non-Metered Parking Permits. The first Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit is provided free of charge and the second Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit is available at a cost of One Hundred Dollars ($100.00).
2. Each dwelling unit within the bounded area that is located on a street block with parking meters in front of the dwelling may apply for and obtain up to two (2) Residential Non-Metered Parking Permits. The first Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit is provided free of charge and the second Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit is available at a cost of One Hundred Dollars ($100.00).
3. The holder of a Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit may park on any of the streets listed that are not controlled by a parking meter. Residential Non-Metered Parking Permits are prohibited fromparking at spaces controlled by parking meters. Parking with Residential Parking Permits (metered and non-metered): Subject to the restrictions. The holder of a Residential Parking Permit (metered and non-metered) may park on the streets in the following areas within the bounded areas listed:
Metered: 100 block West Church to 100 East Church 100 block West 2nd to 1st block East 2nd 1st block West 3rd to 1st block East 3rd 200 block of North Court Record Street/Council Street Market Space North side of East All Saints Street
Non-Metered: 200 block East Church Street 326-342 block East Church Street 200 block West 2nd Street (north side only) 100, 200 block East 2nd Street 100 block West 3rd Street 100, 200 block East 3rd Street 200, 300 block Rockwell Terrace 500 block Elm Street West All Saints Street Carroll Parkway (south side) between North Bentz/College Avenue College Avenue (east side), Carroll Parkway to West Patrick Street 200 block South Carroll Street from East South Street to Clark Place Water Street (east side) between East Patrick Street and Carroll Creek
Limitations: Subject to restrictions on areas where Residential Metered and Non-Metered Parking Permit holders may park as defined in subsection D of this document, a vehicle lawfully displaying a Residential Parking Permit may park any day of the week without further charge for a period of time not to exceed forty-eight (48) hours within the defined area in any lawful parking space.
A vehicle displaying the proper Residential Parking Permit (metered and non-metered) is not required to move every two (2) hours. But, the permit holder of a vehicle displaying a Residential Parking Permit (metered and non-metered) must still comply with all other applicable local, state, or federal laws including, but not limited to, garbage and street sweeping nights and special events.
Visitors Permits – A resident of streets listed above may obtain a visitor permit in the form of a hang tag for those times when a guest will be staying and they wish to park their vehicle on the street. The resident may obtain the hang tag in advance of the visitors’ arrival if necessary. The resident will need to visit the Parking Office and present the following: address where vehicle will be parked, tag number of vehicle to be parked and duration of stay. The cost is determined by the street being metered or non-metered. The cost for a metered street is $1.00 per hour or $8.00 per day, $2 per hour or $16 per day on the 1st block of East and West Church St. The cost for a non-metered street is $1.00 per day. There is a $4.00 deposit of both and this deposit will be refunded upon return of the hang tag after the visitor stay is concluded. All vehicles still need to adhere to the restriction for street sweeping/trash pickup night as posted for each street.
Resident permits – Note: If you area resident permit holder and your car is damaged or rendered inoperable for any other reason and you need a temporary permit for a rental car etc. please call the Parking office at 301-600-1429 for assistance.
Residential Parking Permit Application
Parking fine(s) may be paid in person at the Court Street Parking Garage Office between 8:00 am – 5:00 pm, Monday – Friday. Fine(s) may also be paid by mailing the payment to the:
City of Frederick
2 South Court St
Frederick, MD 21701
Fine(s) may also be paid on line via the Internet by visiting Parking Ticket Payment (There is a $3.50 charge per ticket for online payments.)
Click to view Calls for Service
Please signup at Police News Alerts
Residents in NACs 5 and 11 are part of the initial pilot program free of charge for the duration of the program, however, all residents outside the pilot can sign up for Key City Compost services for a monthly fee.
Visit the City’s website to download the NAC map : https://www.cityoffrederickmd.gov/DocumentCenter/View/847/NAC-Map-Wall?bidId=
Or visit the City’s GIS and select NACs in the available data checkboxes: https://spires.cityoffrederick.com/gis/general/
The City expects the pilot to last about six months, during which time we will collect data to determine how a project might scale up to include all residents. The length is dependent on how many residents sign up for service.
The program can accept about 800 residences and will accept rolling sign-ups until we reach the limit for this pilot project.
Data will be collected and shared at public meetings at the mid-point and near the completion of the program to determine next steps.
For questions about signups or service, contact Key City Compost at 240-608-0283 or firstname.lastname@example.org. For general questions about the pilot, contact email@example.com
During the initial assessment by the Street Maintenance Superintendent, or applicable designees, to determine the type and magnitude of impending weather, a dialogue is started with the On Duty Supervisor of the City Police. If there is sufficient information, (i.e. forecast of large accumulation of snow, poor driving conditions, whenever Frederick County or declared an emergency, etc.), it will be passed along the chain of command for both the City Police and the Department of Operations. Once a recommendation to implement the Snow Emergency Plan has been made the Deputy Director of Operations, or applicable designees, with the approval of the Mayor, shall initiate the Snow Emergency Policy.
Upon receiving approval, the Public Works Department shall notify the Public Information Officer (PIO) via cell phone and email, who will in turn contact the local media, including the local radio station, the Frederick News Post, Cable Channel 99, and the local TV stations. The notice provided to the media shall include the time the Snow Emergency will take effect, which will be at least 2 hours after the Notice has been given to the media. Any other relevant facts, such as parking restrictions, driving restrictions, etc, shall also be provided upon declaring the Snow Emergency.
After the Snow Emergency has been declared, citizens will have two hours to remove their vehicles from snow emergency routes within the City limits. After the two hour period, the Police Department will initiate enforcement, which could include a parking citation and removal of cars remaining on snow emergency routes. Enforcement and removal of vehicles will be coordinated between Public Works and the Police Department. After the need for the Snow Emergency has been eliminated, the Department of Public Works will notify the PIO, who will in turn notify the media.
Should the Mayor be unavailable, The Mayor's designee will assume the duties to approve the declaration of a Snow Emergency.
During the declaration of a Snow Emergency, and on streets designated as Snow Emergency Routes in this Snow Plans, there shall be No Parking allowed. Any vehicles parked on these streets may be towed at the owner's expense. Also, snow tires or chains will be required on any vehicles traveling on these routes
The intent of salting first is to ensure that a brine layer forms, which minimizes the amount of ice that accumulated on the streets. We almost without fail salt all the streets first to ensure the brine layer is in place.
To salt it takes anywhere from five to seven hours depending on road and traffic conditions. We almost always complete the salting before plow operations begin. Additionally, the city utilizes trucks that both apply salt and plow, so it would be impossible in most instances to do both at the same time.
(a) Public nuisance. The mayor and board of aldermen hereby declare that an accumulation of snow or ice on public sidewalks is a public nuisance and creates an emergency situation. Within twelve (12) hours after snow stops falling, a person owning or occupying a lot or part of a lot abutting a city sidewalk shall remove the snow and ice from the abutting sidewalk for a width of four (4) feet, or the width of the sidewalk, whichever is less.
(b) Notice of violation. If the owner or occupant fails to remove the snow and ice as required by this section, the code official shall post a notice of violation in a conspicuous place on the property notifying the property owner or occupant to remove the snow and ice as required by this section.
(c) Municipal infraction. If the property owner or occupant fails to comply with the notice of violation within twenty-four (24) hours after its posting, the code official may issue a citation for a municipal infraction. The penalty for violation is a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars ($100.00).
(d) Abatement. If the property owner or occupant fails to comply with the notice of violation within twenty-four (24) hours after its posting, the code official may cause the snow and ice to be removed. The costs of removal will be charged to the property owner and will be liens upon the property to be collected in the same manner as municipal taxes are collected.
(e) Administrative appeal. A property owner may appeal a notice of violation within five (5) working days of the posting of the notice of violation by filing a written notice of appeal, stating the grounds for the appeal, with the code official. The filing of a notice of appeal does not stay any enforcement action. Upon receipt of a notice of appeal, the code official shall schedule a hearing before the building code appeals board and shall notify the property owner of the date and time of the hearing. At the hearing, the property owner may present witnesses and other evidence and may cross-examine witnesses. The city has the burden of showing by a preponderance of the evidence that this section has been violated. The building code appeals board may affirm the action of the code official or reverse the action based upon a finding that (1) this section has been incorrectly interpreted; or (2) that the condition described in the notice of violation did not exist or did not constitute a violation of this section. In reversing the action being appealed, the building code appeals board shall order that any applicable charge assessed by the city be nullified.
(f) Judicial review. Any person aggrieved by a decision of the building code appeals board may, within ten (10) days of the decision, file a petition for judicial review in the circuit court for Frederick County in accordance with the Maryland Rules applicable to judicial review of administrative agency decisions.
(Ord. No. G-08-1, § 1, 1-3-08)
Editor's note— Ord. No. G-08-1, adopted January 3, 2008, repealed and reenacted § 22-16 which pertained to removal of snow and ice from sidewalks and derived from Ord. No. G-94-82, § 1, 11-17-94.
Sec. 22-16.1. - Placing snow in public way.
(a) A person may not plow, shovel, or otherwise deposit snow or ice onto a public street or sidewalk. Violation of this section is hereby declared to be a municipal infraction punishable by a fine not to exceed five hundred dollars ($500.00).
(b) A person violating this section and the owner of any property from which the snow or ice originated are jointly and severably liable for any costs incurred by the City in (1) removing the snow or ice; and (2) repairing any damage to City property that results from the violation.
(Ord. No. G-82-12, § 1, 7-8-82; Ord. No. G-11-01, § I, 1-6-11)
There are many products used to de-ice surfaces. Consider using de-icing products that use acetate, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride or alternative ice melting products that have less of an impact on the environment.
Follow the directions supplied on the product packaging. Take care to apply light, even coats of product and re-apply as needed instead of one thick coat. Sweep up any excess product after the snow and ice event to prevent de-icer from entering the storm drain system unnecessarily.
Basically, the speed monitoring system is a radar device that measures the speed of every vehicle that passes by. Vehicles found to be exceeding the speed limit by at least 12 miles per hour will be captured electronically and by digital image. That violation information is then sent for a preliminary check to make sure that all of the equipment was operating properly, and to obtain registration information on the violating vehicle. Once that is completed, the violation is sent to the police department for review. If the reviewing police employee approves the violation, a violation notice is then sent to the vehicle owner.
Stormwater runoff is naturally occurring water originating as rain, melting snow, or groundwater that is not able to seep into the ground but instead travels across the land surface. There are many reasons why water is unable to infiltrate into the ground. Surfaces altered by human activities, certain types of soil, ground that is already fully saturated from previous rain events, and rain fall intensity can all affect how much water is able to be absorbed into the ground and how much is left on the surface. Runoff then flows to lower areas which are usually a nearby stream, creek, river, lake, ocean or in the case of urbanized areas a storm drain structure.
Stormwater runoff becomes polluted as it flows over the surface of the land and picks up contaminants. Since it isn’t filtered through the ground the runoff carries these contaminates to waterways. Some contaminates, like pesticides, fertilizers, oil and soap, are harmful in any quantity. Others like bacteria and nutrients from pet waste, grass clippings, and leaves can harm receiving waters if in large quantities. Any surface can accumulate these contaminates including lawns and agricultural land but the biggest concern for the City are impervious surfaces. Impervious surfaces are manmade areas that do not allow any infiltration of water through them to the ground below like roads and buildings. These areas are most likely to have a build-up of contaminates in comparison to lawns or other open space in the City.
Nonpoint Source Pollution is a term for polluted runoff and other sources of water pollution that comes from numerous sources which makes it difficult to determine the exact origin. In contrast Point Source Pollution comes from well-defined discharges such as wastewater plant outfalls or industrial sites. These terms originated from the Clean Water Act (CWA) that regulates discharges to waterways. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enforces the CWA and formed the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program to control and monitor nonpoint source and point source discharges in order to uphold the regulations set forth in the CWA.
Polluted stormwater runoff largely happens anywhere people use or alter the land. Developed areas in general, with their increased runoff, concentrated numbers of people and animals, construction and other activities, are a major contributor to pollution, as are agricultural activities. As such people going about their daily lives are a large source of stormwater pollutants.
Most people are unaware of the impact they have on water quality. Some common examples include over fertilizing lawns, excessive pesticide use, not picking up pet waste, using too much salt to de-ice driveways, letting oil drip out of their vehicles and littering.
Polluted water creates numerous costs to the public and to wildlife. Communities that use surface water for their drinking supply must pay much more to clean up polluted water than communities with uncontaminated water sources.
Polluted water hurts the wildlife in creeks, streams, rivers and lakes. Sediment covers up fish habitats and fertilizers can cause too much algae to grow, which uses up the oxygen and blocks light aquatic plants need to survive. Detergents and chemicals hurt aquatic creatures and can affect reproduction.
The amount of runoff is also a problem. When stormwater falls on hard surfaces like roads, roofs, driveways and parking lots, it cannot seep into the ground, so it runs off to lower areas. Because more water runs off hard surfaces, developed areas can experience local flooding. The high volume of water also causes streams banks to erode. To give you an idea of the difference a hard surface makes, consider the difference between one inch of rain falling onto a meadow and a parking lot. The parking lot sheds 16 times the amount of water that a meadow does.
Preventing pollution from entering waterways is much more affordable and effective than cleaning polluted water! We can prevent pollution and reduce the amount of runoff using Best Management Practices (BMPs).
Best management practices come in many different forms. Educating the public how to prevent stormwater pollution is one type. Laws that require people and businesses involved in earth disturbing activities, like construction and agriculture, to take steps to prevent erosion is another way to prevent stormwater pollution. There are also laws about litter, cleaning up after pets and dumping oil or other substances into storm drains.
In addition to the above actions there are also best management practices that involve how the stormwater is physically managed. These can include the creation of facilities like traditional stormwater ponds or using environmental site design to encourage a more natural drainage pattern.
The 1972 Clean Water Act requires municipalities across the United States to take steps to reduce point source discharges of stormwater runoff into surface waters. In 1990 the EPA’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) published stormwater regulations that were separated into two phases. Phase I required large urban municipalities to control pollution and MDE began issuing Phase I permits in 1993. However, the City falls under the second phase, Phase II, which regulates small municipalities, and some state and federal agencies. MDE issued the first Phase II general permit in 2003. The general permit was reissued in late 2018 with more stringent requirements.
The Phase II general permit requires the implementation of six minimum control measures (MCMs) which include:
1. Public Education and Outreach
2. Public Involvement and Participation
3. Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination
4. Construction Site Stormwater Runoff Control
5. Post-Construction Stormwater Management
6. Pollution Prevention and Good Housekeeping
In addition to the above minimum control measures, the 2018 Phase II general permit also includes a requirement to provide treatment for 20% of runoff that is not currently being treated by modern stormwater management practices by 2025.
As the saying goes, “we all live downstream.” Streams and creeks feed into rivers, lakes and the ocean. We all drink water, so we are all affected when our water is polluted. When water treatment costs rise, the price of drinking water goes up. If you like to fish, swim or boat, you may have heard or been affected by advisories warning you not to do those activities in a certain area because of contaminated water or too much algae. Shellfish like clams and oysters cannot be harvested from polluted waters, so anyone that enjoys these foods or makes a living from the shellfish industry is affected. Money made from tourism and water recreation can also be impacted, as are businesses and home flooded by excess stormwater runoff. When we pollute our water, everyone is affected!
The quarterly stormwater fee charged by the City is used to raise funds for construction and maintenance of stormwater infrastructure. Many other municipalities levy this type of fee, sometimes known as a “Rain Tax”, and base their fee on a variety of standards. The City uses one of the most common methods and bases fees on the amount of impervious surfaces, such as roofs and concrete walkways, on a property since these are the types of surfaces that increase stormwater runoff. For residential properties the average percent impervious area was estimated.
When our water is polluted, we all pay in one way or another. Damage from urban flooding can raise construction prices and insurance rates. Sediment and pollution laden water takes more money to treat before it can be used for drinking water. Tourism and recreation businesses suffer along with residents when swimming, fishing and boating are curtailed. Shellfish become more expensive and harder to harvest when shellfish beds close. And the list goes on. Because everyone plays a role in creating the pollution in stormwater runoff, we all have a role in cleaning it up.
Use fertilizers and pesticides in small amounts only when necessary and when no rain is in the immediate forecast. Remember to sweep up any fertilizer that is spilled on hard surfaces like sidewalks and abide by the Maryland Fertilizer Law.
1. Never dump anything down storm drains or in streams. Many storm drains lead directly to streams and are for naturally occurring rain water only.
2. Vegetate or mulch bare spots in your yard to prevent erosion.
3. Compost yard waste if possible. REMEMBER leaves and grass clippings are to be placed in paper bags or up to 35 gallon reusable containers at the curb, not in the street as previously permitted. Yard waste is collected weekly on the same day as your normal trash collection. Doing this keeps leaves out of the gutter, where they can wash into the nearest storm drain.
4. Maintain your vehicle. Oil and other fluid leaks accumulate on the road and are carried by rain water to storm drains. Proper maintenance reduces the chances of leaks.
5. Wash vehicles and equipment on grass or at a car wash. This keeps dirt and detergent from flowing down driveways into the gutter and storm drain.
6. If chemicals such as fertilizer, detergent, or rock salt falls onto walkways or other paved surfaces sweep it up instead of hosing it away. Cleaning spills using a dry method, like putting cat litter on liquids to absorb them and sweeping up the materials, helps keep chemicals from entering the storm drain.
7. If possible, direct downspouts away from paved surfaces and across your lawn; consider installing a rain garden or rain barrel to capture runoff.
8. If you have a septic system, maintain it properly by having it inspected regularly and pumped every three to five years. If it is an older system, be sure it can still handle the volume placed on it today. Never put chemicals into septic systems, they can harm the system and seep into the groundwater.
9. Please don’t litter. Ensure garbage set out for collection is in a container with a closed lid to prevent trash from being blown out by wind or pulled out by scavenging animals.
10. Keep lawn and household chemicals tightly sealed and in a location where rain cannot reach them. Dispose of old or unwanted chemicals at household hazardous waste collections sites or events.
There are many ways to help reduce stormwater pollution by being involved and knowledgeable on the issue. Engage and participate in community stormwater outreach opportunities like stream cleanups and tree plantings in your area. Attend public meetings or watch Channel 99 to stay up to speed on what the City is doing to tackle stormwater issues and ask questions. Report suspected stormwater violations when you spot them. Keep learning about stormwater pollution and spread the word!
In order to have trees planted owners must go through an application process via the Parks Division or the Parks Division website. Once applications are received at the address posted on the application the property will be inspected by an authority from the Parks Division. During this inspection the authority will assess if there is space available and no utility conflicts for the planting of a tree.
After the property has been inspected the Parks Division will make the determination if a tree can be planted while keeping up with efforts to ensure public safety and reduce maintenance costs for the City of Frederick.
Permanent borders or built-up planters around trees are not allowed. They are a trip hazard and cause undesirable root growth.
Note: Residents as well as professional arboricultural companies are not allowed to prune any public right-of-way tree without the permission/authority of the City of Frederick
If you have any other questions about the right of way trees, please contact the City of Frederick Arborist at (301) 600-1233.
It is not the responsibility of the City Surveying and Mapping Division to survey private property.
Contact the settlement company that provided your settlement services or use the Links page to search the Maryland Records online.
Contact any Maryland licensed Property Line or Professional Land Surveyor.
Speak with your neighbor and contact a Maryland licensed Property Line or Professional Land Surveyor.
The City does not survey private property. Contact a Maryland licensed Property Line or Professional Land Surveyor for this service.
The person(s) whose property is damaged would file a claim with his or hers insurance company, no matter who owns the tree. A typical homeowner's policy will pay to repair the damage to the structure and contents subject to the policy provisions. Your insurer will pay for removal of the tree; however, the cost for removal of the tree is typically limited per tree or per event. This Is typically referred to as debris removal coverage in your homeowner's policy.
Also keep in mind that the typical homeowner's policy will not provide coverage to replace any tree that was damaged/destroyed by wind. Debris removal coverage is also typically available for those circumstances when a tree falls and blocks the homeowner's driveway or handicap entrance/exit. If your insurer believes that any party (neighbor or city) has any liability due to the property damage, the insurer will subrogate against the other parties.
The same rules apply. However, if the tree belongs to the city, falls but doesn't cause damage, contact the city. The city may take care of or assist with the clean-up and may decide to replace the tree.
Even if the tree was dead and the owner knew it, the same answer as above would apply with respect to filing a claim with your insurance company. If your insurer believes that any party (neighbor or city) has any liability due to the property damage, the insurer will subrogate against the other parties.
Talk to your neighbor to see if the tree can be trimmed or removed before damage.
The following can be set out:
The following cannot be set out: